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MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT DEFINITIONS

Southeast Appraisal
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Unique circumstances may demand specific definitions not found below. Many terms are used to describe notions of value. The definitions offered here are to provide the fundamental concepts and are not the only acceptable definitions, since contracts may dictate a somewhat different notion. Therefore, these definitions may be redefined as the purpose and function of the appraisal may dictate as long as the fundamental concept is not altered. All definitions are per the American Society of Appraisers’ Valuing Machinery and Equipment: The Fundamentals of Appraising Machinery and Technical Assets 3rd Edition, unless otherwise noted. Fair Market Value is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date. (In the valuation of personal property, this definition must be further defined based on the function, use and purpose of the appraisal.) Fair Market Value – Installed is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, considering market conditions for the asset being valued, independent of earnings generated by the business in which the property is or will be installed, as of a specific date. Fair Market Value – Removed is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, considering removal of the property to another location, as of a specific date. Fair Market Value in Continued Use with an Earnings Analysis is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date and supported by the earnings of the business. Fair Market Value in Continued Use with Assumed Earnings is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date and assuming that the business earnings support the value reported, without verification. Fair Value (FASB 157 / ASC 820) is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between marketplace participants at the measurement date. (This statement also explains that a fair value measurement of an asset assumes its highest and best use by market participants. Such use would maximize the value of the asset or group of assets within which the asset would be used, regardless of the intended use of the asset by the reporting entity.) Fair Value (SFAS 141 / ASC 805) is the amount at which an asset (or liability) could be bought (or incurred) or sold (or settled) in a current transaction between willing parties, that is, other than a forced or liquidation sale. Forced Liquidation Value is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money, that typically could be realized from a properly advertised and conducted public auction, with the seller being compelled to sell with a sense of immediacy on an as-is, where-is basis, as of a specific date. Insurable Value Depreciated is the insurance replacement or reproduction cost new less accrued depreciation considered for insurance purposes, as defined in the insurance policy or other agreements, as of a specific date. Insurance Replacement Cost New is the replacement or reproduction cost new, as defined in the insurance policy, less the cost new of the items specifically excluded in the policy, as of a specific date. Liquidation Value in Place is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money that typically could be realized from a properly advertised transaction, with the seller being compelled to sell, as of a specific date, for a failed, non-operating facility, assuming that the entire facility is sold intact. Market Value is a type of value, stated as an opinion, that presumes the transfer of a property (i.e., a right of ownership or a bundle of such rights), as of a certain date, under specific conditions set forth in the definition of the term identified by the appraiser as applicable in an appraisal. Forming an opinion of market value is the purpose of many real property appraisal assignments, particularly when the client’s intended use includes more than one intended user. The conditions included in market value definitions establish market perspectives for development of the opinion. These conditions may vary from definition to definition but generally fall into three categories: 1. the relationship, knowledge, and motivation of the parties (i.e., seller and buyer); 2. the terms of sale (e.g., cash, cash equivalent, or other terms); and 3. the conditions of sale (e.g., exposure in a competitive market for a reasonable time prior to sale). Appraisers are cautioned to identify the exact definition of market value, and its authority, applicable in each appraisal completed for the purpose of market value (USPAP pages U3-U4). Net Realized Value is the selling price less reasonably estimable costs of completion and disposal. Orderly Liquidation Value is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money, that typically could be realized from a liquidation sale, given a reasonable period of time to find a purchaser (or purchasers), with the seller being compelled to sell on an as-is, where-is basis, as of a specific date. Replacement Cost New is the current cost of a similar new property having the nearest equivalent utility as the property being appraised, as of a specific date. Reproduction Cost New is the cost of reproducing a new replica of a property on the basis of current prices with the same or closely similar materials, as of a specific date. Salvage Value (Appraisal) is an opinion of the amount, expressed in terms of money that may be expected for the whole property or a component of the whole property that is retired from service for possible use elsewhere, as of a specific date. Salvage Value (Accounting) is the selling price assigned to retired fixed assets or merchandise unsalable through usual channels. Scrap Value is an opinion of the amount, expressed in terms of money that could be realized for the property if it were sold for its material content, not for a productive use, as of a specific date.
© Southeast Appraisal Resource Associates, Inc. 2015
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MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT

DEFINITIONS

Southeast Appraisal
Unique circumstances may demand specific definitions not found below. Many terms are used to describe notions of value. The definitions offered here are to provide the fundamental concepts and are not the only acceptable definitions, since contracts may dictate a somewhat different notion. Therefore, these definitions may be redefined as the purpose and function of the appraisal may dictate as long as the fundamental concept is not altered. All definitions are per the American Society of Appraisers’ Valuing Machinery and Equipment: The Fundamentals of Appraising Machinery and Technical Assets 3rd Edition, unless otherwise noted. Fair Market Value is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date. (In the valuation of personal property, this definition must be further defined based on the function, use and purpose of the appraisal.) Fair Market Value – Installed is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, considering market conditions for the asset being valued, independent of earnings generated by the business in which the property is or will be installed, as of a specific date. Fair Market Value – Removed is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, considering removal of the property to another location, as of a specific date. Fair Market Value in Continued Use with an Earnings Analysis is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date and supported by the earnings of the business. Fair Market Value in Continued Use with Assumed Earnings is an opinion, expressed in terms of money, at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts, as of a specific date and assuming that the business earnings support the value reported, without verification. Fair Value (FASB 157 / ASC 820) is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between marketplace participants at the measurement date. (This statement also explains that a fair value measurement of an asset assumes its highest and best use by market participants. Such use would maximize the value of the asset or group of assets within which the asset would be used, regardless of the intended use of the asset by the reporting entity.) Fair Value (SFAS 141 / ASC 805) is the amount at which an asset (or liability) could be bought (or incurred) or sold (or settled) in a current transaction between willing parties, that is, other than a forced or liquidation sale. Forced Liquidation Value is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money, that typically could be realized from a properly advertised and conducted public auction, with the seller being compelled to sell with a sense of immediacy on an as-is, where-is basis, as of a specific date. Insurable Value Depreciated is the insurance replacement or reproduction cost new less accrued depreciation considered for insurance purposes, as defined in the insurance policy or other agreements, as of a specific date. Insurance Replacement Cost New is the replacement or reproduction cost new, as defined in the insurance policy, less the cost new of the items specifically excluded in the policy, as of a specific date. Liquidation Value in Place is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money that typically could be realized from a properly advertised transaction, with the seller being compelled to sell, as of a specific date, for a failed, non- operating facility, assuming that the entire facility is sold intact. Market Value is a type of value, stated as an opinion, that presumes the transfer of a property (i.e., a right of ownership or a bundle of such rights), as of a certain date, under specific conditions set forth in the definition of the term identified by the appraiser as applicable in an appraisal. Forming an opinion of market value is the purpose of many real property appraisal assignments, particularly when the client’s intended use includes more than one intended user. The conditions included in market value definitions establish market perspectives for development of the opinion. These conditions may vary from definition to definition but generally fall into three categories: 1. the relationship, knowledge, and motivation of the parties (i.e., seller and buyer); 2. the terms of sale (e.g., cash, cash equivalent, or other terms); and 3. the conditions of sale (e.g., exposure in a competitive market for a reasonable time prior to sale). Appraisers are cautioned to identify the exact definition of market value, and its authority, applicable in each appraisal completed for the purpose of market value (USPAP pages U3-U4). Net Realized Value is the selling price less reasonably estimable costs of completion and disposal. Orderly Liquidation Value is an opinion of the gross amount, expressed in terms of money, that typically could be realized from a liquidation sale, given a reasonable period of time to find a purchaser (or purchasers), with the seller being compelled to sell on an as-is, where-is basis, as of a specific date. Replacement Cost New is the current cost of a similar new property having the nearest equivalent utility as the property being appraised, as of a specific date. Reproduction Cost New is the cost of reproducing a new replica of a property on the basis of current prices with the same or closely similar materials, as of a specific date. Salvage Value (Appraisal) is an opinion of the amount, expressed in terms of money that may be expected for the whole property or a component of the whole property that is retired from service for possible use elsewhere, as of a specific date. Salvage Value (Accounting) is the selling price assigned to retired fixed assets or merchandise unsalable through usual channels. Scrap Value is an opinion of the amount, expressed in terms of money that could be realized for the property if it were sold for its material content, not for a productive use, as of a specific date.